Anaheim 13th Marine Expeditionary Unit (MEU) Adoption Committee
Anaheim 13th Marine Expeditionary Unit (MEU) Adoption Committee
(Copied from Marines.com)
The Marine Corps started as the Continental Marines during the American Revolutionary War, formed by a resolution of the Continental Congress on November 10, 1775, and first recruited at Tun Tavern in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. They served as landing troops for the recently created Continental Navy. The Continental Marines were disbanded at the end of the war in April 1783 but re-formed on July 11 1798. Despite the gap, Marines celebrate November 10 as the Marine Corps Birthday.
Historically, the United States Marine Corps has achieved fame in several campaigns, as referenced in the first line of the Marine Corps Hymn: "From the halls of Montezuma to the shores of Tripoli". In the early 19th century, First Lieutenant Presley O'Bannon led a group of seven Marines and several hundred Egyptian Mameluke soldiers in deposing the dictator of Tripoli. Separately, the Marines took part in the Mexican-American War (1846-1848) and assaulted the Castillo de Chapultepec, or the Castle of Chapultepec, which overlooked Mexico City. The Marines were placed on guard duty at the Mexican Presidential Palace, "The Halls of Montezuma."
After these early 19th-century engagements, the Marine Corps occupied a small role in American military history. They saw little significant action in the American Civil War, but later become prominent due to their deployment in small wars around the world. During the latter half of the 19th century, the Marines saw action in Korea, Cuba, the Philippines, and China. During the years before and after World War I, the Marines saw action throughout the Caribbean in places such as Haiti and Nicaragua. These actions became known as "The Banana Wars," and the experiences gained in counter-insurgency and guerrilla operations during this period was consolidated into the Small Wars Manual.
In World War I, the battle-tested, veteran Marines served a central role in the U.S. entry into the conflict, and at the Battle of Belleau Wood, Marine units were in the front, winning the Marines a reputation as the "First to Fight". This battle cemented the reputation of the Marines in modern history. Rallying under the battle cries of "Retreat hell! We just got here!" and "Come on, you sons of bitches, do you want to live forever?", the Marines violently expelled German forces from the area. The Germans referred to the Marines in the battle as "Teufelhunde", literally, "Devil Dogs", a nickname Marines proudly hold to this day.
U.S. Marines raised the American Flag on Iwo Jima on February 23, 1945. In World War II, the Marines played a central role in the Pacific War. The battles of Guadalcanal, Tarawa, Iwo Jima, and Okinawa saw fierce fighting between U.S. Marines and the Japanese Imperial Marines. The war saw the expansion of the Corps from two brigades to two corps with six divisions and five air wings with 132 squadrons. The secrecy afforded by the Navajo code talkers contributed to their success.
During the Battle of Iwo Jima, the famous photograph of five Marines and one Navy medical corpsman raising the flag was taken. The acts of the Marines during the war secured their reputation, and in honor of them and all Marines who have died in war, the USMC War Memorial was dedicated in 1954.
The Korean War saw the Marines land at Inchon and assault north into North Korea along with the Army. As U.S. forces approached the Yalu River, the People's Republic of China, fearing an incursion by American forces, sent armies over the river to engage American forces within Korea.
At the Battle of Chosin Reservoir, the First Marine Division fought Chinese forces, vastly outnumbered but vastly better equipped and trained. Recovering equipment left by Army forces who had scattered in disordered retreat, the Marines regrouped, assaulted the Chinese, and inflicted heavy casualties during their fighting withdrawal to the coast.
The Marines also played an important role in the Vietnam War at battles such as Da Nang, Hue City, and Khe San. Marines were among the first troops deployed to Vietnam, as well as the last to leave during the evacuation of the American embassy in Saigon.
After Vietnam, Marines served in a number of important events and places. In 1983, a Marine barracks in Lebanon was bombed, causing the highest peacetime losses to the Corps and leading to the American withdrawal from Lebanon. Marines were also responsible for liberating Kuwait during the Persian Gulf War, as the Army made an attack to the west directly into Iraq. In 1996, Marines performed a successful mission in Bosnia, rescuing Captain Scott O'Grady, a downed Air Force fighter pilot, in what is called a TRAP (Tactical Rescue of Aircraft and Personnel).
Post 9/11, the Marines have served prominently in both Iraq and Afghanistan. The Marines played a key role in the invasion of Iraq on March 20, 2003 through the fall of Baghdad on April 9th, but that proved to be just the beginning of a more than eight-year Marine presence in that country. Marines served bravely in many battles in those years, such as the first and second battles of Fallujah, and the battle of An Nasiriyah. In Afghanistan, Marines have been instrumental in battling Taliban and other terrorist forces for over a decade and will continue to do so through at least
Marines are held to the highest standards. "Honor, courage and commitment", the core values of the Marines, define how every Marine in the Corps thinks, acts and fights. Throughout the evolving battlefields of the 21st Century, every Marine in the Corps must be confident in the abilities of themselves, and in the abilities of each other. In the chaos of battle, character matters. The principles and values of each Marine are the building blocks for making the right decisions at the right time, both on the battlefield and off.
The Marine Corps defends the people of the United States at home and abroad. Marines are trained to improvise, adapt and overcome any obstacle in whatever situation they are needed. They have the willingness to engage and the determination to defeat the enemy. Active-duty Marines engage in all kinds of fights from traditional warfare to humanitarian and disaster relief missions. The fighting spirit that helps them win these battles extends beyond the scope of their military service, and many Marines continue to serve in the communities where they live. The fighting spirit that lives within every Marine is what sets them apart from any other fighting force on the globe. That spirit drives them to accept nothing less than victory in all situations. That determination to win, eagerness to fight, and high standard of excellence are all traits strengthened in the Corps.
The life of a Marine can take many forms - each with their own unique place in a proud heritage. Regardless of the battle, within every Marine lies the courage to fight and the will to win.
When their Nation calls, their answer goes beyond ships, armor or aircraft. They respond with the single greatest weapon in the United States Marine Corps: the unparalleled fighting spirit found inside every United States Marine. With their determination to defeat every adversary, there is no obstacle that can stand in the way of victory. They meet exhaustion and fight past it, felt doubt and pushed through it. They are trained for this, they are ready for this and they will not stop until the battles are won. Against every opposing force, every enemy and every battle they are trained to fight and determined to win. Every challenge they have faced has prepared them to overcome what’s next, to push past weakness, to defeat every adversary, until the battle is won.
Even before America existed, there were Marines fighting for its future. Founded in 1775, the United States Marine Corps shares its legacy with that of the United States of America. Intrinsically bound, the Marines have fought battles throughout time to defend our constitution, protect our people, and to stabilize the world in times of crisis. Since its inception, the Marine Corps has developed innovations, perfected fighting tactics and their fighting spirit to win crucial battles that protect our great nation. All Marines know that battles aren’t only won on the field; battles are won from within by those with a fighting spirit, the same fighting spirit that flows through the veins of every Marine.
The Marine Corps birthday is a celebration of the fighting spirit. Older than our Nation itself, the Corps reminds itself and our Nation each November 10 of a brilliant history of battles fought and won. Just as importantly, we celebrate the Marines, past and present, who won them. Marines celebrate their birthday with a formal Birthday Ball. Birthday Balls are held all over the world for Marines to honor and celebrate their legacy since 1775. Since 1921, the reading of Major General John A. Lejeune’s Order No. 47 has been a mainstay of every Marine Corps Birthday Ball, serving as the official verbal declaration of the history, mission and traditions of the Corps. A few days before the birthday, a large group of Marines complete a moto run. Units from all over the world also run in celebration. Another tradition performed at the Ball is the cake being given to the oldest Marine in attendance and then passed to the youngest. This signifies the passing of experience and knowledge from the old to the young in the Corps. The oldest issued weapon in the United States military arsenal is the NCO sword which is why Marines cut their birthday cake with a sword. No matter where Marines are on November 10, they gather in celebration. Every Marine deserves to hear the words, “Happy Birthday, Marine.”
Every stitch of a Marine uniform represents the character and spirit of the Corps. Whether it's the cammies which are worn during training and combat or the famed dress blues for which Marines are known, the USMC uniforms have a purpose and meaning sewn into them. Both uniforms are a reminder of who Marines defend as well as pay homage to those Marines who fought before them. The Marine Corps Combat Utility Uniform, or cammies, is worn by Marines as their standard uniform in combat, during training and while deployed overseas. Marines primarily wear cammies in a green Woodlands print; in cold weather environments they wear a white and gray-patterned design. While deployed in desert surroundings, Marines wear a tan and brown variation of the uniform that helps them blend into the environment as well as maintain cooler body temperatures. Marines are known for their distinctive dress blue uniform which has origins dating back to the American Revolution. Dress blues are worn for many events, including ceremonies with foreign officials, visits with U.S. civil officials and formal social functions attended in an official capacity.
As America's expeditionary force in readiness since 1775, the U.S. Marines are forward deployed to win our Nation’s battles swiftly and aggressively in times of crisis. Unlike the other military branches, Marines fight on land, air and the sea. Marines provide forces and detachments to naval ships and ground operations. Marines have a long history of developing expeditionary doctrine and innovations that set the example while leading other countries in multinational military operations. These unique capabilities and leadership qualities make the Marines our Nation’s first line of defense.
As the force that fights in air, on ground and at sea, Marines are able to engage and win on every front. Marines are trained and equipped to answer threats all over the world because our Nation has interests beyond the borders of the United States. The USMC functions as a unique force, combining ground, aviation and amphibious assets to defend our country and its interests. From joint training that reinforces our relationships with allied countries to anti-terrorism missions to secure key ports, Marines are prepared to win, wherever the battle takes them. The Marine Corps uses a flexible organizational structure that is specifically designed for swift deployment of forces by air, land or sea. The Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF) provides our Nation with a variety of response options, coordinating teams of ground, air and logistics assets under a central command that is built to conduct a full range of operations. Because the MAGTF can be adapted, Marines are ready to fight battles around the world at a moment’s notice. Marines are this Nation’s force in readiness due to their ability to innovate, adapt and overcome all challenges in unexpected situations and chaotic environments. In order to remain effective against new threats with new technology or weaponry, Marines must stay ahead of the curve. Whether they are deployed abroad or stationed aboard bases at home like Camp Lejeune or Camp Pendleton, Marines remain trained and knowledgeable on a wide range of equipment, weapons, vehicles and aircraft. Marines are taught to assess a situation quickly so that they are able to make strategic decisions according to each individual moment. Thinking, acting and moving with a sense of purpose is necessary in order to be victorious in every battle. Marines embody the idea of Semper Fidelis, or “Always Faithful.” They know there may come a time when they are the first called upon to fight in defense of our nation and its interests. Marines are ready at a moment’s notice because they are trained, equipped and organized to respond with sound judgment and appropriate force. From combat engagement to humanitarian missions, Marines are our first responders—our Nation’s 911 force.
This Nation has a cadence born of more than two centuries of confidence and ambition. If you listen closely, you’ll also hear the cadence of the United States Marine Corps in lock step. From the moment a young country first called Marines to arms, the Corps has been what America has put her trust in. Each Marine Corps birthday, Marines celebrate all that has been, all that continues to be and all that the future holds. Check out this great video.
There is no better symbol for the purpose Marines serve than the emblem every Marine earns: the Eagle, Globe and Anchor. Whether it appears on a uniform, printed page, or a flag, the Eagle, Globe and Anchor is an icon of greatness.
The eagle represents the proud Nation Marines defend. It stands prepared and ready to spring into action with America's coastlines in sight and the entire world within reach of its outstretched wings. The globe represents the Marine's worldwide presence. The anchor points both to the Marine Corps' naval heritage and its ability to access any coastline in the world. Together, the eagle, globe and anchor symbolize the commitment of the United States Marine Corps to defend our nation - in the air, on land and at sea.
The Corps adopted the Bulldog as its mascot after World War I. According to tradition, the Marines fought so fiercely in the battle of Belleau Wood in France that the Germans called them “teufel hunden” after the devil dogs from Bavarian folklore. The nickname “devil dogs” stuck.
Bulldogs are internationally recognized as symbols of courage. Sports teams and universities around the country employ the thickset bruisers as their mascots, and the Bulldog was famously associated with Winston Churchill’s defiance of Nazi Germany. In fact, Bulldogs became the unofficial mascot of the United States Marine Corps after a recruitment poster featured a Bulldog wearing a U.S. helmet chasing a fleeing Dachshund in a German helmet. For the Marines, there’s no better breed to stand in as their “teufel hunden.”
Marines have carried several different flags since the American Revolution, but today's scarlet standard has been flown since January 1939. The Eagle, Globe and Anchor emblem is rendered in gray and gold over the scarlet background. The ribbon flowing from the eagle's beak bears the motto, "Semper Fidelis," and the words "United States Marine Corps" are found on the scroll below.
Scarlet and gold were established as the official colors of the Corps as early as 1925, and the Eagle, Globe and Anchor emblem has appeared as part of Marine Corps iconography since 1868. In addition to being flown at ceremonies and installations and presented by the All-Marine Color Guard, the Marine Corps flag hangs in the offices of the President of the United States, the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of the Navy, and the Chairman and Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
The Marines’ Hymn is one of the most recognized songs in the world today and is the oldest of the service songs of the United States. The history of the hymn has been clouded by the passing of time and confused by oral tradition, however there is no confusion on the part of the hearer when The Marines’ Hymn is heard. It is as easily identified with the Marine Corps as “The Star-Spangled Banner” is with our great nation. To all Marines it has become a sacred symbol of the pride and professionalism of a Marine and you will find them standing straight and tall at the position of attention when it is performed.
The music to the hymn is believed to have originated in the comic opera Geneviéve de Brabant composed by the French composer Jacques Offenbach. Originally written as a two-act opera in 1859, Offenbach revised the work, expanding it to three acts in 1867. This revised version included the song “Couplets des Deux Hommes d’Armes” and is the musical source of The Marines’ Hymn.
The author of the hymm's words is unknown. It was originally thought that an unknown Marine wrote the words in 1847, but this is not likely as this would have been 20 years before the music was written. The first two lines of the first verse were taken from words inscribed on the Colors of the Corps. After the war with the Barbary pirates in 1805 the Colors were inscribed with the words “To the Shores of Tripoli.” After Marines helped capture Mexico City and the Castle of Chapultepec (also known as the Halls of Montezuma) in 1847, the words were changed to read “From the shores of Tripoli to the Halls of Montezuma.” The unknown author of the first verse of the hymn reversed this order to read “From the halls of Montezuma to the shores of Tripoli.”
In 1929 the Commandant of the Marine Corps authorized the following verses of The Marines’ Hymn as the official version:
“From the Halls of Montezuma
To the shores of Tripoli;
We fight our country’s battles
On the land as on the sea;
First to fight for right and freedom
And to keep our honor clean;
We are proud to claim the title
Of United States Marine.
Our flag’s unfurled to every breeze
From dawn to setting sun;
We have fought in ev’ry clime and place
Where we could take a gun;
In the snow of far-off Northern lands
And in sunny tropic scenes;
You will find us always on the job
The United States Marines
Here’s health to you and to our Corps
Which we are proud to serve;
In many a strife we’ve fought for life
And never lost our nerve;
If the Army and the Navy
Ever look on Heaven’s scenes;
They will find the streets are guarded
By United States Marines.”
On Nov. 21, 1942, the Commandant of the Marine Corps approved a change in the words of the fourth line of the first verse to read, “In the air, on land, and sea.”
"[The Marine Corps] must be the most ready when the nation is generally least ready … to provide a balanced force in readiness for a naval campaign and, at the same time, a ground and air striking force ready to suppress or contain international disturbances short of large-scale war." - Congressional Mandate, 82nd Congress, 1952
A battle cry among Marines, since the mid-20th century, ‘ooh-rah’ can be used as a greeting, a term of affirmation, or as a way of expressing enthusiasm. Marines hear it each and every day. Deeply embedded into the minds of all Marines since boot camp, this distinctly Marine call is barked back and forth in an almost endless stream of motivation. .
Latin for “always faithful,” Semper Fidelis has been the official motto of the Corps since 1883. Usually shortened to Semper Fi, it symbolizes the lifelong commitment held by every Marine for the Corps and America, a promise reciprocated by the Corps to all Marines. Semper Fidelis is used as a greeting, a motivation, and an expression that unites past and present Marines. In wartime or peace, Semper Fidelis speaks volumes. It represents tradition and responsibility - beginning the moment a young man or woman commits to earning the title of U.S. Marine and is theirs for life.
A Latin term that means “lead by example,” ductus exemplo is the official motto of Officer Candidates School (OCS). Translated, it means that being a Marine isn’t about giving or receiving orders; it’s about behaving in a manner that inspires others.
It is said that the Marines got their nickname "Devil Dogs" from official German reports which called the Marines at Belleau Wood Teufel Hunden. Legend says that the nickname came about from Marines being ordered to take a hill occupied by German forces while wearing gas masks as a precaution against mustard gas. While the Marines fought their way up the hill, the heat caused them to sweat profusely, foam at the mouth and turned their eyes bloodshot, and at some points the hill was so steep it caused the Marines to climb up it on all fours. From the Germans' vantage point, they witnessed a pack of tenacious, growling figures wearing gas masks, with bloodshot eyes and foam seeping from the sides of their mouths, advancing up the hill, sometimes on all fours, killing everything in their way. As the legend goes, the German soldiers, upon seeing this spectacle, began to yell that they were being attacked by "dogs from hell."
There are several myths surrounding how the Marines got the nickname "Jarhead", which emerged around World War II. One theory is that the high collar on their uniform makes the Marine’s head, while in uniform, look as if it is coming out of a jar.
Another theory is that the nickname came from the Marine haircut which is known as the “high and tight” and is a version of the classic military crew cut; the term jarhead could have come from the fact that a Marine’s haircut looked like the cap of a jar which spawned the nickname for their heads.
Yet another theory is that Marines are “hard on the outside and empty on the inside" willing to single-mindedly follow orders straight into battle no matter how dangerous it may be. Basically, Marines are known for putting their duty to their country above their own personal safety. According to this theory, being a jarhead means going against human nature and sacrificing yourself regardless of what your instincts might be saying.
Regrdless of the origin, today it’s mostly used as a beloved term used by the Marines, encouraging a sense of camaraderie.
The term leatherneck is said to have been derived from the tall, leather collar that used to be a feature of the Marines uniform in both the British and American Marine Corps. From 1798 to 1872, it remained as part of the U.S. Marines dress code and is likely where the term leatherneck originated. A lesser known
theory as to why Marines are called leathernecks is that they spend so much time on the decks of ships that their necks are exposed, turning tanned and leathery in the sun, thus the term leatherneck.
The U.S. Marines Corp is deeply rooted in tradition and, rightfully so, are extremely proud of their history. Although leatherneck can sometimes be seen as mockery, the U.S. Marines take it in stride seeing it as a piece of lingo, not a derogatory term.
“We have only one mission to perform—that is to fight and win. And we must do it better than anyone else in the world.” - LtGen Leslie E. Brown
"I love the Marines for the intangible possessions that cannot be issued: pride, honor, integrity" - Cpl Jeff Sorni
"It represents "those intangible possessions that cannot be issued: pride, honor, integrity, and being able to carry on the traditions for generations of warriors past. The emblem of the Corps is the common thread that binds all Marines together, officer and enlisted, past and present ... The eagle, globe and anchor tells the world who we are, what we stand for, and what we are capable of, in a single glance." - Sergeant Major David W. Sommers
"Some people spend their life wondering if they made a difference. Marines don't have that problem" - Ronald Reagan
"Old breed? New breed? There’s not a … bit of difference so long as it’s the Marine breed" - LtGen Chesty Puller
"We go do the things that others think can't be done". - Jake Harriman
"For Maines, we go above and beyond. No matter what situations come up, you have to get it done." - Juan Vasquez
"Innovation helps us win battles because it helps us anticipate what the enemy is going to do." - Jon Gillis
"It is the traditions, the history, that makes Marines stand out" - Aulton Kohn
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